Key Hygiene Issues in Mineral Water Production: A Comprehensive Analysis


Mineral water production is a complex process that requires meticulous attention to hygiene to safeguard the quality and safety of the final product. In this comprehensive analysis, we’ll delve into the primary hygiene challenges faced during mineral water production and the essential measures to address them.

Microbial Contamination:

Microbial contamination remains a critical factor influencing the quality of mineral water. Due to the constraints of the production process, mineral water cannot be treated with preservatives, disinfectants, or subjected to heat sterilization, making microbial contamination a challenging issue.

Fungal contamination, especially during the humid seasons in the southern regions, poses a significant challenge. Mold, a type of fungus, can introduce suspended particles with a cotton-like appearance when mineral water is contaminated. The primary sources of mold contamination include air, water pumps, storage tanks, and pipelines.

Preventive measures involve ensuring a hygienic environment in the bottling facilities, employing purification equipment, and implementing proper air purification measures in production areas. Rigorous training programs for staff on hygiene practices are also essential to minimize microbial contamination.

Algae Pollution:

Although there are no specific quantity standards for algae in mineral water sources and the final product, algae growth can result in visible precipitates affecting sensory characteristics such as color, taste, and odor. Algae, categorized as low-level plants, can negatively impact the filtration system, leading to clogging and reducing its lifespan.

Preventing algae contamination involves blocking or isolating the pathways through which algae may enter, including air in bottling facilities, pipelines, open-air aerated tanks, and storage containers, especially during the recycling process. Implementing these preventive measures is crucial to maintaining water purity and preventing algae-related issues.

Sediment Issues:

Sediment, another quality concern, often emerges after the mineral water has left the production facility, during storage, transportation, or usage. There are several types of sediment issues, including:

  1. Brown Non-Crystalline Sediment: Occurs due to high iron and manganese content in the water source. Vigilant monitoring and measures to remove iron and manganese during production are essential to prevent sediment issues.
  2. White Crystalline Sediment: Typically composed of mineral salts, excessive crystalline sediment affects sensory characteristics. This issue is prevalent in highly mineralized carbonate-type mineral water. Strict production controls, including temperature adjustments during bottling, help prevent crystalline sediment formation.
  3. White Cotton-Like Suspended Particles: Resulting from mold contamination, as discussed earlier.
  4. Green or Yellow-Green Filamentous Sediment: Caused by algae contamination.

Hygiene Management Measures:

Strengthening Source Water Protection:

Many manufacturers lack adequate awareness of source water protection, leading to potential contamination risks. It is imperative to establish strict hygiene protection zones and clear isolation bands to prevent contamination. Understanding the geological conditions and the aquifer of mineral water sources is the initial step. The two primary measures include:

  1. Establishing a sanitary protection zone around the water source, ensuring effective protection against bacterial or other harmful substance contamination. This is a fundamental condition for ensuring the safety and hygiene of natural mineral water. National standards mandate the creation of a hygiene protection zone at the water source, marked by fixed signs. The first zone is a strict protection zone within a radius of 15m around the spring (well). The second zone is a restricted zone within 30m outside the production area, and the third zone is a surveillance zone, the scope of which depends on water supply and distribution.
  2. Strengthening water quality monitoring and annual inspections. National standards require a comprehensive analysis of mineral water sources at least once a year.

Implementing Strict Scientific Management in Production:

  1. Enhancing Production Process Management:
    • Selecting rational water treatment processes based on the water source type and quality characteristics.
    • Adopting recognized ozone disinfection procedures, paying attention to membrane quality, and controlling ozone concentrations according to water quality characteristics.
  2. Effective Layout of Production Sites:
    • Planning the production layout with the bottling workshop at the center to prevent cross-contamination.
    • Implementing air purification measures in bottling workshops to maintain a sterile environment. Large mineral water facilities, considering economic feasibility and technical viability, should aim for a cleanliness rating of 100 for the filling and sealing areas, with an overall air cleanliness rating of 1000. This necessitates the installation of three-level air filters to ensure a sterile indoor environment.
  3. Enhancing Real-time Process Parameter Detection:
    • Implementing online ozone detection to control ozone concentrations effectively.

Strengthening Hygiene Monitoring Throughout the Production Process:

  1. Establishing and Improving Hygiene Management Structures:
    • Forming hygiene management teams, including factory leadership, workshop supervisors, key engineering personnel, and quality inspection department heads, each with clear responsibilities.
  2. Establishing a Strict Responsibility System and Operating Procedures:
    • Implementing preventive pollution measures and detailed operating procedures for various stages of water source, production premises, and production processes. These procedures should be assigned to specific departments and positions.
  3. Cleaning and Disinfection:
    • Conducting thorough and rigorous cleaning and disinfection of all pipelines, storage tanks, bottling equipment, and containers. Sampling and testing during the cleaning and disinfection processes should be routine, ensuring the timely adjustment of disinfectant concentrations and contact times.
  4. Staff Training:
    • Providing comprehensive training to staff to enhance their awareness of hygiene practices. For example, personnel entering sterile areas in mineral water plants must wear proper attire, including work clothing, hats, masks, and gloves. Work clothing, hats, and work shoes should undergo centralized disinfection and uniform storage, with daily replacements.


Addressing hygiene challenges in mineral water production requires a holistic approach, encompassing source protection, scientific production management, and comprehensive hygiene monitoring throughout the production process. By implementing these measures, mineral water producers can ensure the safety, quality, and purity of their products, meeting stringent regulatory and consumer expectations.

Xi’an CHIWATEC Water Treatment Technology is a high-tech enterprise specialized in various water processing devices. Aside from these individual products, which cover a number of types and series, we can also help with related comprehensive engineering projects. Thanks to our hard work and dedication upon our founding, we are now one of the fastest-developing water treatment equipment manufacturers in Western China.

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