Classification and introduction of water purifiers
According to water quality treatment methods, water purifiers can be divided into the following 11 categories.
1. The softening method refers to removing or reducing the hardness of water to a certain extent (mainly refers to calcium and magnesium ions in water). During the softening process, water can only soften the water quality and cannot improve the water quality.
2. Distillation refers to boiling water, then collecting steam to cool and condense into a liquid. Distilled water is extremely safe drinking water, but there are some issues that need further discussion. Since distilled water does not contain minerals, this is why opponents believe that human life is prone to aging. In addition, the distillation method has high cost, consumes energy, and cannot remove volatile substances in water.
3. The boiling method refers to drinking tap water after boiling, which is an ancient method widely used in China. Boiling water can kill bacteria, but some chemicals and heavy metals cannot be removed, even if the content is very low, so it is not safe to drink.
4. Magnetization refers to the treatment of water by the effect of magnetic field, which is called the magnetization of water. The magnetization process is that water passes through the magnet in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field lines and then completes the magnetization process. So far, China’s magnetized water treatment is still in the initial stage of practice and research. Foreign water purifiers do not need the magnetization function, because magnetized water does not belong to the category of pure water, but belongs to medical problems.
5. Mineralization refers to the addition of mineral elements (such as calcium, zinc, strontium, etc.) that are beneficial to the human body on the basis of purification. The purpose is to give play to the health functions of mineral water. Commercial water purifiers usually add maifanite to achieve the purpose of mineralization, but the effect of artificial mineralization is still a controversial issue.
6. Ozone and ultraviolet sterilization can only sterilize, and cannot remove heavy metals and chemicals in water. Dead bacteria remain in the water and become pyrogens.
7. Water regulator Water regulator is a newly invented product Japan. It purifies water and then activates it electrolytically. Its alkaline activated water corresponds to the acidity and alkalinity of the human body environment, has health effects on the human body, and is suitable for drinking. Acid activated water can be used for face washing and bathing, and has a cosmetic effect. However, there are different views on the water conditioning principle of the water conditioning device, the water quality of the water conditioning device, and the impact on the human body after use, which need to be further explored.
8. Activated carbon adsorption can be divided into the following three forms
- Granular activated carbon is commonly used. Carbonaceous substances such as flavor, coal, and fruit shell (core) are usually manufactured by chemical method or physical activation method. It has a large number of micropores and specific surface area, so it has a strong adsorption capacity and can effectively adsorb organic pollutants in water. In addition, during the activation process, some oxygen-containing functional groups were formed on the amorphous portion of the activated carbon surface, which enabled the activated carbon to have chemisorption, catalytic oxidation, and reduction properties, and could effectively remove some metal ions in water.
- Silver-immersed activated carbon combines activated carbon and silver, which not only has an adsorption effect on organic pollutants in the water, but also has a bactericidal effect. The activated carbon does not breed bacteria, thereby solving the problem of high nitrite content in the water purifier water . When water passes through the activated carbon impregnated with silver, the silver ions are slowly released, playing a role of disinfection and sterilization. Activated carbon has a good removal effect on the color, odor, chlorine, iron, arsenic, mercury, cyanide, and phenol in water, and its sterilization effect is more than 90%, so it is used in small water purifiers.
- The new adsorption material formed by activated carbon organic carbon fiber has developed microporous structure, huge specific surface area and numerous functional groups. The use of fiber activated carbon abroad has made remarkable achievements in solvent recovery and gas purification. A lot of research work has also been done on the application of water treatment.
9. Reverse osmosis / reverse osmosis membrane
- Reverse osmosis is a kind of machine (also called terminal water purification equipment), which filters raw water (physical method) without adding any compounds through currently popular methods (such as reverse osmosis) to produce Purified water for direct drinking. The city’s tap water with the water quality conforming to the “Sanitary Specifications for Drinking Water Quality” (2001) of the Ministry of Health of China is used as raw water. The filtered water was pressurized through reverse osmosis (reverse osmosis) having a pore size of 1/10000 micrometers. Reverse osmosis in English) membrane, and finally the purified water is produced by adjusting the pH value of the water (making the purified water sweet and mellow) by using silver-loaded activated carbon (also called small T33) made of fruit shell (coconut shell).
- The reverse osmosis water purifier introduces advanced ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis technology and accessories from the United States to produce the most advanced domestic and group pure water equipment. The water quality of the device is good, the operation is safe, stable and reliable, the operation is simple, the floor space is small, and it can effectively remove calcium, magnesium, bacteria, organic matter, inorganic matter, metal ions and radioactive substances in the water. The water purified with this device is clear and sweet. The device is suitable for drinking clean water in households, hotels, hotels, hospitals and other enterprises.
- The pure water produced by the reverse osmosis water purification mechanism is fresher, healthier and safer than bottled water. It can be used for a variety of purposes: raw or boiled. The most prominent feature in this regard is that the kettle or electric thermos no longer forms scale. Pure water is more hygienic and delicious for cooking. Bathing with pure water can remove impurities on the skin, moisturize the skin, and have a natural beauty effect. It can provide the water required for small household appliances such as humidifiers, steam irons, beauty salons, etc., and does not produce unpleasant limescale. When used with ice makers, the ice cubes made are clear and transparent without any odor.
- Reverse osmosis technology: The original reverse osmosis is REVERSE OSMOSIS. It is a collection of scientists from various countries of NASA. With government support, it has spent billions of dollars after years of research. The principle of reverse osmosis is to apply more pressure on the raw water side than the natural osmotic pressure, so that the water molecules reverse osmosis from the high concentration side to the low concentration side. Because the pore size of the reverse osmosis membrane is much smaller than hundreds or even thousands of times of the case poison and bacteria, various viruses, bacteria, heavy metals, solid solubles, polluted organic matter, calcium and magnesium ions, etc. cannot pass through the reverse osmosis membrane at all. , So as to achieve the purpose of water softening and purification.
10. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration methods Microfiltration is a microporous filter membrane made of cellulose or polymer materials. It uses its uniform pore size to trap particles, bacteria, colloids, etc. in the water so that it is not removed through the filter membrane. This microporous membrane filtration technology, also known as particle density filtration technology, can filter micron or nanometer particles and bacteria. Both ultrafiltration and microfiltration are membrane separation technologies. There is no clear boundary between the two. The working pressure of ultrafiltration is generally about 0.3 MPa, which can remove large molecular substances, bacteria, viruses, etc. in water, but the throughput is low. .
11. Compound type When it is difficult for one process to remove harmful substances in water, two or more kinds of processes are used as the compound type. Such as activated carbon adsorption, ultraviolet sterilization, activated carbon adsorption, reverse osmosis, activated carbon adsorption, microfiltration (ultrafiltration), polypropylene ultrafine fiber, activated carbon, microfiltration (ultrafiltration), etc. Among the composite water purifiers, the membrane technology composite water purifier has excellent water purification performance, especially in the removal of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, etc.). It has a significant effect. Some of the high-quality water purifiers can directly drink raw water. It has been welcomed by consumers and has become a hot spot in the current development of water purifiers.