Definition and physical properties of activated carbon?

Activated carbon is a kind of black powdery, granular or pelletized amorphous carbon with porous carbon. The main component is carbon, and it also contains a small amount of oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine. It also has a fine structure like graphite, but the crystal grains are small and the layers are stacked irregularly. It has a large surface area (500~1000m2/g) and strong adsorption performance, which can adsorb gas, liquid or colloidal solid on its surface; for gas and liquid, the quality of the adsorbed substance can be close to that of activated carbon The quality of itself. Its adsorption is selective, and non-polar substances are easier to adsorb than polar substances. In the same series of substances, the higher the boiling point, the easier it is to be adsorbed, the higher the pressure, the lower the temperature, the greater the concentration, and the greater the adsorption capacity. On the contrary, reducing pressure and increasing temperature are beneficial to the desorption of gas. Commonly used for gas adsorption, separation and purification, solvent recovery, decolorizer for sugar liquid, oil, glycerin, medicine, deodorant for drinking water and refrigerator, filter agent in gas mask, and also used as catalyst or metal salt Catalyst carrier. The raw materials for the early production of activated carbon were wood, hard nut shells or animal bones. Later, coal was mainly used. After dry distillation and activation treatment, the production methods of activated carbon were:

  1. steam and gas activation methods. Use water vapor or carbon dioxide to activate carbon at 850 to 900°C.
  2. Chemical activation method. Activated carbon can be obtained after high temperature treatment by using the gas released by the activator or impregnating the raw material with the activator.

Activated carbon has a microcrystalline structure, and the arrangement of the microcrystals is completely irregular. There are micropores (radius less than 20 [A] = 10-10 meters), transition pores (radius 20~1000), and macropores (radius 1000~100,000) in the crystal. It has a large inner surface, with a specific surface area of ​​500-1700 m2/g. This determines that activated carbon has good adsorptivity and can absorb metal ions, harmful gases, organic pollutants, pigments, etc. in wastewater and exhaust gas. Industrial application of activated carbon also requires high mechanical strength and good wear resistance, its structure strives to be stable, and the energy required for adsorption is small to facilitate regeneration. Activated carbon is used for decolorization and deodorization of fats, beverages, food, drinking water, gas separation, solvent recovery and air conditioning, as a catalyst carrier and adsorbent for gas masks.

Physical characteristics:

Activated carbon is a kind of carbon with multiple pores. It has a very rich pore structure and good adsorption characteristics. Its adsorption is formed by physical and chemical absorption, and its appearance is black in color. In addition to the main carbon, its composition also contains a small amount of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Its structure looks like a hexagon. Due to the irregular hexagonal structure, it is determined that it is mostly solid and has a high surface area. Characteristic, every gram of activated carbon has a specific surface equivalent to 1000 square meters.

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