Understanding the Working Principle and Applications of UV Germicidal Lamps

Working Principle of UV Germicidal Lamps:

Ultraviolet (UV) light, which is invisible to the naked eye, exists on the outer fringe of the UV spectrum. UV light is categorized into three bands: A, B, and C, with the C-band being the most effective for germicidal purposes. In particular, the C-band UV light with a wavelength of 253.7 nanometers (nm) is exceptionally potent.

Modern UV disinfection technology is founded on the principles of epidemiology, optics, biology, and physical chemistry. It employs specially designed, efficient, high-intensity, and long-lasting C-band UV light-emitting devices. These devices generate intense ultraviolet C (UV-C) light, which is directed onto flowing fluids (such as water and air) or solid surfaces. When various microorganisms—ranging from bacteria and viruses to parasites and algae—are exposed to a specific dose of UV-C light, their DNA structures are disrupted. This DNA damage effectively eliminates these pathogens without the need for chemical agents, achieving the goals of disinfection and purification.

Applications of UV Germicidal Lamps:

Due to the potent germicidal properties of UV-C light at 253.7 nm, UV germicidal lamps have found a wide array of applications. Their remarkable efficiency, extended lifespan, and reliability make them indispensable in various fields, including:

  1. Water Disinfection in the Food Processing Industry: UV-C lamps are instrumental in treating water used in the processing of juices, milk, beverages, beer, edible oils, and various canned and chilled products.
  2. Water Disinfection in Healthcare and Laboratories: Hospitals and laboratories rely on UV-C lamps to disinfect water, and they are also crucial for treating wastewater with a high pathogen load.
  3. Domestic Water Disinfection: Residential communities, office buildings, municipal water treatment plants, hotels, and restaurants all utilize UV-C lamps to ensure the safety of their drinking water.
  4. Biopharmaceutical and Cosmetic Production: UV-C is employed for disinfecting cooling water in the production of biopharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
  5. Water Purification and Disinfection in Aquaculture: UV-C is indispensable for purifying water used in the production of aquatic products, including fish, eels, shrimp, and shellfish.
  6. Swimming Pools and Water Recreation Facilities: UV-C technology is applied to disinfect water in swimming pools and water-based recreational facilities.
  7. Marine and Freshwater Aquaculture: UV-C is used in the breeding of marine and freshwater species, such as fish, eels, shrimp, and shellfish.
  8. Ultra-Pure Water for the Electronics Industry: UV-C-treated water is vital for various industrial applications, including the production of ultrapure water for the electronics industry.

Maintenance and Care of UV Germicidal Lamps:

  1. Optimal Operating Conditions: UV germicidal lamps perform optimally when the water temperature ranges from 5°C to 50°C, relative humidity remains below 93% (at 25°C), and the voltage is maintained at 220±10V, 50Hz. The water entering the disinfection equipment should have a 1cm transmittance rate between 95% and 100%. If water quality falls short of national standards, consider employing other purification and filtration methods to meet the required standards before using UV-C disinfection equipment.
  2. Regular Inspections: Ensure regular checks to guarantee the normal operation of UV-C lamps. Avoid frequent switching, as it can significantly impact lamp lifespan.
  3. Routine Cleaning: Depending on water quality, UV-C lamps and quartz glass sleeves require periodic cleaning. Use alcohol-soaked cotton balls or cloth to clean the lamps and quartz glass sleeves thoroughly. This prevents the accumulation of dirt and maintains UV transmittance, ensuring effective germicidal performance.
  4. Lamp Replacement: Imported UV-C lamps typically have a lifespan of 9000 hours or one year. Replace UV-C lamps within this timeframe to ensure high germicidal efficiency. When replacing lamps, disconnect the lamp socket from the power source, remove the old lamp, and carefully insert the new lamp into the UV germicidal lamp unit, securing it with the sealing ring. Check for any water leaks before reconnecting the power source. Avoid touching the quartz glass of the new lamp with bare fingers to prevent fingerprints that may affect germicidal effectiveness.
  5. UV Radiation Protection: UV-C light is highly effective at germicidal action but can be harmful to humans. When activating UV disinfection lamps, ensure that direct exposure to UV-C light is avoided. Consider using protective eyewear and never look directly at the light source to prevent eye damage.


Understanding the working principle and applications of UV germicidal lamps is essential in various industries, from food processing to healthcare and beyond. By adhering to maintenance and operational guidelines, you can harness the power of UV-C technology for safe and effective disinfection and purification.

Xi’an CHIWATEC Water Treatment Technology is a high-tech enterprise specialized in various water processing devices. Aside from these individual products, which cover a number of types and series, we can also help with related comprehensive engineering projects. Thanks to our hard work and dedication upon our founding, we are now one of the fastest-developing water treatment equipment manufacturers in Western China.

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