The color of the earth is green. She breeds life and heralds the birth and future of mankind. I said that she is the cradle of life, the mother of humanity, and she dedicated all her love to the children and grandchildren of the humanity. She is indeed large and vast, but not endless; she is indeed beautiful, beautiful, but not youthful; she is indeed rich and resourceful, but not inexhaustible and inexhaustible. Today, the earth’s ecological environment has been severely damaged by human activities. Especially the pollution of water is more prominent.
Water is the lifeblood of everything on the earth. Water nourishes everything, nurtures life, and creates civilization. The internationally recognized per capita needs 1000 cubic meters. In the face of “water dripping like oil” water resources, human waste and pollution are distressing: According to statistics, the world ’s sewage discharge has reached 400 billion cubic meters, causing 5.5 trillion cubic meters of water Pollution accounts for more than 14% of the world’s total runoff.
50% to 60% of the body’s weight is water, and as much as 80% in children. Without water, there is no life. Fresh water resources on the earth only account for 3% of the total water resources of the earth, and only 3% of these 3% fresh water can be directly consumed. Therefore, water is a precious human resource and a fountain of life. However, water pollution is quite common and serious in the world. When the harmful substances in the water exceed the self-purification ability of the water body, this will cause pollution. These harmful substances include toxic substances such as pesticides, heavy metals and their compounds, various waste gases and radioactive substances.
It comes from untreated municipal sewage, papermaking sewage, agricultural sewage, and municipal waste. Dead organic matter can consume dissolved oxygen in water and endanger the survival of fish; it can also lead to lack of oxygen in water, causing the death of microorganisms that require oxygen. It is these aerobic microorganisms that can decompose organic matter and maintain the self-purification ability of rivers and streams. The consequences of their deaths are: rivers and streams become black and stinky, toxins accumulate, and people and animals are harmed.
Organic and inorganic chemical pollution
These chemicals come from wastewater from chemical plants, pharmaceutical factories, paper mills, printing and dyeing plants, and tannery, as well as building decoration, dry cleaning industry, chemical detergents, agricultural pesticides, herbicides and so on. Most organic products can accumulate in aquatic organisms and cause poisoning after consumption. Water contaminated with organic chemicals is difficult to purify, and human drinking water safety and health are threatened.
Water pollution caused by human production activities. Water pollution caused by industry is the worst. Such as industrial wastewater, it contains many pollutants and complex components. It is not only difficult to purify in water, but also difficult to handle.
Industrial wastewater is the most important cause of water pollution caused by industrial pollution. It accounts for most of the pollutants emitted by industry. The pollutants contained in industrial wastewater vary greatly depending on the type of factory. Even in similar factories, the production process is different, and the quality and quantity of the pollutants contained are different. In addition to the direct discharge of wastewater from the industry into the water body to cause pollution, solid waste and waste gas will also pollute the water body …
Agricultural pollution is mainly caused by loosening of the surface of the land due to farming or wasteland. Rainfall occurs when the soil and terrain are not stable, and a large amount of sediment flows into the water, increasing suspended matter in the water.
Another important reason is that in recent years, the use of pesticides and fertilizers has been increasing, and only a small amount of pesticides and fertilizers have been attached or absorbed, and most of the remaining residues remain in the soil and float in the atmosphere. Through rainfall, they pass through surface runoff. Scouring into and infiltrating surface water creates pollution.
Urban pollution sources are caused by the concentration of urban population and the pollution of water bodies caused by urban sewage, garbage and waste gas. Urban pollution sources pollute the water body mainly with domestic sewage, which is a mixture of various kinds of sewage produced in people’s daily life, including sewage discharged from kitchens, washing rooms, bathrooms and toilets.
In the world, only 500 cubic kilometers of industrial and domestic wastewater are discharged in urban areas in one year, and each drop of sewage will pollute water bodies several times or even dozens of times.
A large amount of pollutants were first discharged into the river, causing inland water pollution. Water pollution is extremely harmful to human health. Pathogenic microorganisms and viruses in sewage can cause the spread of infectious diseases. Some toxic substances in water can kill humans and animals in minutes. The most dangerous are cadmium, lead and other metal substances, which cause chronic poisoning after entering the human body. Once found, they cannot be stopped.
There are many unfavorable factors for the impact of polluted water on the human body: 70% -80% of the human body is water. Therefore, drinking poor water quality for a long period of time will lead to the weakening of the body’s poor resistance, and the occurrence of all diseases is inevitable. When the accumulated pollutants reach the body and cannot bear it, no matter how clever the doctor or the effective medicine is, it may not be effective, so the saying “water is the king of 100 medicines” is true.
The impact of common drinking water quality items on human health:
Lead: harmful to the kidneys and nervous system, highly toxic to children, proven carcinogenic
Cadmium: acute kidney damage
Arsenic: Harm to skin, nervous system, etc. Carcinogenicity has been proven
Mercury: It is extremely harmful to the human body. The main organs of injury are kidney and central nervous system.
Selenium: high concentrations can harm the muscles and nervous system
Nitrite: cause cardiovascular diseases, the most obvious effect in infants (blue baby disease), carcinogenic
Total trihalomethanes: Chloroform has the greatest health impact, and the most common carcinogenicity is bladder cancer
Trichloroethylene (organic matter): Excessive inhalation will reduce central nervous system and heart function. Long-term exposure is harmful to the liver.
Carbon tetrachloride (organic matter): It has extensive effects on human health, is carcinogenic, and has a great effect on liver and kidney function.
In recent years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a survey on water-borne diseases between 1971 and 1994. Of the 740 cases, 148 were caused by protozoa, and a total of 448,486 people were sick. All The highest cause. The study found that two species of Cryptosporidium and Piriformis in protozoa need special attention. They most often appear in recreational scenic areas and animal husbandry areas, and the two species are the most abundant in pigs and ducks. Statistics also show that a total of 89 deaths were caused in 23 years, while as many as 70 were caused by protozoa.
According to a World Health Organization survey, 70% of the world’s population does not have access to safe and hygienic drinking water. Now, 15 million children under the age of 5 die every year, and most of the causes of death are related to drinking water. According to United Nations statistics, 250,000 people in the world suffer from illness or death from drinking water every day.
Water pollution not only threatens mankind, but also brings huge losses to fisheries. Severe fish and shrimp deaths, but also interfere with fish reproduction, greatly reducing fishing yield and quality. Sewage also pollutes farmland and crops, reducing agricultural production. Water pollution also causes declines in other environments, affecting people’s excursions, recreation and recreation.
Water is not only the source of life, it is extremely important to human beings, and pollution is so severe. Therefore, we should prevent and protect water resources, and use and use water reasonably.
The measures taken for sewage are mainly:
(1) Funding, administrative and legal safeguard measures
Financial support is an indispensable condition
Obviously, financial support is one of the important conditions for pollution control. Without funding, all governance measures cannot be implemented.
2. Backed by government
Urban water pollution control involves a wide range, not only residents, but also field personnel, military systems, ethnic minorities, and the interests of rights holders. Therefore, the water conservancy department alone cannot solve the problem, and even with the environmental protection department, the power is still weak. The strong support of the city government is needed, and the city government also needs the support of the central government. Many coercive measures will not work without the support of a strong government.
3. Pollution control requires legal system
Laws and regulations are the yardstick for people to abide by. Local laws to protect the city’s water environment should be formulated so that water management departments can have laws to follow and administer according to law. Such things will be easier to do.
(2) engineering safeguard measures
1. Must implement complete interception, sewage / rainwater diversion
According to the results of field surveys, domestic sewage is the most serious source of pollution in the water system, and the complete interception of domestic sewage is the basis of pollution control. In addition, since rainwater pipes are often used as sewage pipes, the implementation of sewage / rainwater diversion is also an important measure. Sewage is sent to a sewage treatment plant for treatment, and rainwater can be directly discharged into natural water bodies to reduce the processing load of the sewage treatment plant. Sewage can be discharged through river channels.
2. Relocation of old bungalow area
Generally speaking, newly built residential areas in cities and towns have complete sewer systems, and sewage / rainwater diversion is implemented. However, the houses in the old bungalow area are dilapidated, most of them have no sewer system, and the pollution / rain is not distinguished, which is the main source of river pollution. No matter from the perspective of pollution control or urban construction, it is necessary to relocate the old cottage area.
(3) Municipal management measures
Strengthen comprehensive urban sanitation managementStrengthen comprehensive sanitation management in cities and towns, keep streets clean, and reduce the risk of bringing dirt into rivers due to wind and rain. Strict sanitary management of free markets, restaurants, and settlements of migrants, strict supervision of construction site hygiene, and pollution-causing small roadside businesses, car wash spots, or environmental renovation or banning.
2. Sanitation department should improve management level
In view of the fact that the sanitation department employees dumped the collected garbage and large feces on the river channels, the sanitation department should improve the management level, strictly require the employees to observe the rules, educate the employees to clarify their responsibilities, and give the employees who do not follow the rules and pollute the environment without authorization. Corresponding penalties.
3. Reasonably arrange garbage disposal sites and public toilets
The network of garbage disposal sites (especially in public places) should be improved to allow people to dispose of garbage, and to reduce the random disposal of garbage caused by the lack of garbage stations (boxes). There should be some public toilets along the river to make it convenient for people who are outside, and to reduce the phenomenon of using the riverside as a toilet because there is no toilet.
4. Demolition of all illegal buildings that cause pollution
All pollution-causing restaurants along the river and water concert halls should be banned.
(4) Water Resources Regulation Measures
Strengthen research on water allocation
Insufficient water resources are an important factor affecting water quality. If the river is not flowing, the water quality will deteriorate. Research on water resource deployment should be strengthened. How to save water and protect the water environment is a subject that must be studied. When constructing a batch of sewage treatment plants, the application of treated water should be strengthened. The treatment plant and the water pipeline should be planned and designed at the same time, and the treated clean water should be introduced into the river channel. This will save water resources and protect the water environment.
(5) Public participation measures
Involve the public in river environmental management
The river channel management department should establish communication channels with the residents along the line, visit the residents on a regular basis, announce the report phone, and give the residents the opportunity to participate in the supervision of the pollution source, identify problems and deal with them in a timely manner. Measures such as “three guarantees in front of the door” can also be implemented. The purpose is to give full play to the great enthusiasm of the masses for protecting the water environment and to effectively monitor and protect the water environment.
2. Do a good job in mass education
Strengthen education for the public to protect water quality, set up warning signs along the river, and call on people to pay attention to protecting water quality. In addition, the news media continue to educate the public on environmental protection.
However, there are several aspects of this process that have not received sufficient attention or have not been effectively implemented:
First of all, in the process of controlling water pollution, it is necessary to avoid equating water environment improvement work with administrative coercive measures. In the process of rectification, more economic measures should be adopted to mobilize the internal enthusiasm of pollutant discharge units, so that pollutant discharge and comprehensive treatment become voluntary and voluntary behaviors of enterprises. This can not only reduce the cost of administrative enforcement, but also reduce or eliminate the occurrence of fraud, the pursuit of formal compliance, and the retention of substantial pollution, thereby effectively improving the effectiveness of the implementation of relevant laws and regulations. In addition to generally introducing economic incentives, rewarding advanced units that meet standards, and providing them with preferential policies, is it possible to effectively combine water environment treatment with market development of cleaner production technologies, The creation and creation of thousands of polluting enterprises at the same time as new enterprises and new markets that are favorable for environmental protection, organically linked the water environment improvement work with other aspects of society and economy, so that environmental protection work is no longer a negation of the development of industrial enterprises , But a combination of positive and negative. From the perspective of long-term development, industrialization toward environmental health is the general trend of world development, and the development and utilization of cleaner production processes will occupy a huge market share in the near future. Therefore, we should seize the opportunity and strive to take advantage of the backward advantages to achieve greater economic development while promoting environmental quality improvement.
Secondly, in the process of water pollution control, it is also necessary to avoid equating water pollution prevention and control with industrial enterprises’ discharge. When the source of pollution in most river basins is rooted, pesticides, fertilizers and other agricultural wastes along the main and tributary banks will be discarded to water bodies. This is one of the important reasons for the deterioration of the water environment. The large amount of agricultural pollutants discharged into rivers and lakes is to a large extent responsible for the poisoning of water bodies. However, in the actual operation of water environment treatment, we can hardly see any measures to control agricultural non-point source pollution, let alone the pollution control actions with a wide range of social influences like “Zero Action”. Of course, it does not deny that the pollution control of industrial enterprises and agricultural pollution control are inseparable. The governance of “15 small” companies has cut off the source of agricultural pollutants within a certain range. However, from a practical point of view, this is far from Not enough; nor does it deny that agricultural non-point source pollution is much more difficult to control than point source pollution under normal conditions of industrial enterprises, and even nearly inoperable. However, it cannot be considered because the problem is extremely difficult to solve. It doesn’t exist. This can only lead to acquiescence to agricultural pollution, thereby magnifying the problem.
The water pollution treatment process should be closely integrated with the restoration and improvement of the ecological environment. Environmental problems are different from those regulated by any other departmental laws due to their inherent all-round and multi-factor characteristics. This requires that the watershed of water pollution issues must be taken into account in the process of water environment problems, and the banks of rivers and lakes must be strengthened. Coordination and cooperation between regions. Secondly, water resources, as an important component of the ecological environment, have self-evidently important values for human production and life. Therefore, the combination of water environment improvement and the development of the concept of water rights is used to clarify the beneficiaries of water resources and water environment issues. The governors of this project are undoubtedly of great significance. At the same time, for the development and utilization of water resources, the whole river basin must be taken into consideration. Production, living, and ecological water use must be comprehensively balanced to achieve a combination of micro and macro to promote a fundamental solution to water environmental problems. .
Since ancient times, human beings have survived and reproduced under the nourishment of water, and will continue to exist and develop on the same basis in the future. No matter how the society progresses and how the times develop, we cannot exchange the economic development for the temporary economic development at the expense of the water environment, because it will cause the unbearable consequences of humankind, and ultimately cause all human civilization to vanish. If the past water environment problems were caused by human ignorance, then today, we have gradually realized the seriousness of the problems; if we say that the water pollution and the damage to the aquatic environment that we have caused are the result of our neglect of management Then, today, we have taken a solid step on the road to water environment governance; if the completed governance work has played a positive role in curbing the deterioration of the water environment, the future work will be more arduous and heavy, There is a need for better legislative support, wider social participation, and more durable all-round investment. The status quo of the water environment requires us to relentlessly adhere to the governance work, and the achievements we have achieved have inspired us to carry out the governance work with greater confidence.
Water pollution control is more difficult than flood control and drought resistance, because the occurrence of floods is accidental in time and limited in area, and water pollution exists every time and every place. Floods and droughts are natural disasters. In the face of natural disasters, human beings can be more united, hardworking, help each other, and arouse enthusiasm. Water pollution is a human calamity, caused by people, and pollution control will affect some The interests of people will involve all aspects of society.
In short: saving water starts from a little bit!