Principle of water softener

The water softener uses ion exchange technology to exchange functional ions on the resin with calcium and magnesium ions in the water to absorb excess calcium and magnesium ions in the water to achieve the purpose of removing scale (calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate).

The water softener is equipped with a softener resin. This artificial ion exchange resin has soft mineral sodium, which can react with hard minerals such as calcium and magnesium dissolved in the water, and the sodium will not be in the form of scale It accumulates on the surface of objects, so there is little harm to objects in contact with it. Resin is a porous, insoluble exchange material. There are millions of tiny plastic balls (beads) in modern water softeners, all of which contain many negative charge exchange sites that absorb positive ions. When the resin is in the nascent state, these charge exchange sites are occupied by positively charged sodium ions. The resin preferentially binds with stronger charged cations. The charge of calcium and magnesium ions is stronger than that of sodium ion. When the water containing calcium and magnesium ions passes through the resin storage tank, the calcium and magnesium ions contact the resin beads and replace them from the exchange position Sodium ion. After ion exchange, calcium and magnesium ions are adsorbed on the resin in the water softener, and the water flowing out becomes soft. Finally, after all the resins are full of calcium and magnesium ions, they can no longer work and need to be regenerated.

The regeneration of the water softener resin is carried out with a dilute solution of sodium chloride and water. In the regeneration process, the working water flow of the water softener is first stopped, the brine drawn from the brine tank is mixed with another dilution water flow, and the diluted brine solution flows through the resin and contacts the resin with calcium and magnesium ions. Although calcium and magnesium ions carry more electricity than sodium ions, concentrated salt solutions contain millions of weakly charged sodium ions, which have the ability to replace a smaller number of calcium and magnesium ions. In this way, when the calcium and magnesium ions are replaced and exchanged, the resin is regenerated and ready for the next softening work. So it goes back and forth.

Hardness Water Softening System

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