Main Process Flow Description of Reverse Osmosis Pure Water Equipment

Main Process Flow Description of Reverse Osmosis Pure Water Equipment

  1. Raw Water Tank (Optional) The raw water tank stores the feed water, allowing large sediment particles and other precipitable substances to settle. It also buffers the impact of unstable water pressure in the feed water pipeline on the water treatment system, preventing pressure sensor reactions due to low or high pressure.
  2. Raw Water Pump Ensures a constant supply pressure and stable flow rate to the system.
  3. Quartz Sand Filter Utilizes multiple filtration layers to remove particulates such as sediment, rust, colloids, and suspended solids larger than 20 microns from the feed water. It can be controlled manually or automatically for operations like backwashing and rinsing, ensuring high water quality and prolonging equipment lifespan.
  4. Activated Carbon Filter Uses nutshell activated carbon to adsorb electrolyte ions, perform ion exchange adsorption, and reduce COD from 15 mg/L to 2-7 mg/L. The filter also removes pigments, odors, organic substances, residual chlorine, pesticides, and trihalomethanes (THMs). Manual or automatic controls for backwashing and rinsing help maintain water quality and low operating costs.
  5. Ion Softening System / Dosing System Prevents the precipitation of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, and other salts that could damage the RO membranes by using ion softening devices or antiscalants before water enters the RO membranes.
  6. Security Filter Uses precision filters to remove remaining suspended solids, fine particles, and colloids from the water, ensuring the safe and reliable operation of downstream equipment like the RO system. The filter uses 5-micron melt-blown cartridges to remove any particles larger than 5 microns.
  7. High-Pressure Pump A crucial component of the RO system, the vertical multi-stage stainless steel centrifugal pump provides the necessary pressure and flow rate to the RO membranes. Proper operation and maintenance are essential to prevent dry running, overloading, and ensuring electrical components remain dry.
  8. Primary Reverse Osmosis System Applies sufficient pressure to separate solvents (typically water) from solutes through semi-permeable membranes, achieving high desalination rates and stable operation. The system also removes bacteria, colloids, and large organic molecules.
  9. Intermediate Water Tank Stores purified water that has not yet undergone disinfection.
  10. Ozone Sterilizer (Optional) Uses ozone to kill bacteria and viruses in the water, preventing bacterial growth in the water tank and ensuring high water quality.
  11. Finished Water Tank Stores disinfected purified water, ready for distribution to usage points.
  12. Booster Pump Ensures adequate pressure and flow rate to the points of use.


  • Residential Areas
    Provides high-quality drinking water for residential complexes, ensuring 24/7 access to pure water through household plumbing systems.
  • Bottled Water Production
    Can be paired with automatic filling machines to create fully automated bottled water production lines.
  • Food Industry
    Supplies water for ingredient mixing, improving taste, preventing organic growth, and extending product shelf life.
  • Dairy, Beverage, and Alcohol Industries
    Recommended to use dual-stage RO systems to prevent off-flavors and enhance product quality by removing impurities from water.
  • Chemical Industry
    Used for mixing chemical solutions, manufacturing products, and in cooling systems to prevent unwanted chemical reactions and quality deviations caused by ion contamination.
  • Power Industry
    Provides boiler feed water for thermal power plants and other industrial boilers, improving efficiency and extending equipment lifespan.
  • Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination
    Desalination systems for islands, ships, offshore platforms, and areas with brackish water to produce potable water meeting drinking standards.
  • Aquaculture and Horticulture
    Provides clean water for livestock and plant cultivation, promoting healthy growth and preventing waterborne diseases.


Reverse osmosis pure water equipment is a versatile and essential technology for various applications, from residential water supply to industrial processes. By understanding the main process flow and components, users can optimize water treatment efficiency, ensure high water quality, and extend the lifespan of their equipment. As technology advances, RO systems will continue to play a crucial role in providing clean and safe water worldwide.

Xi’an CHIWATEC Water Treatment Technology is a high-tech enterprise specialized in various water processing devices. Aside from these individual products, which cover a number of types and series, we can also help with related comprehensive engineering projects. Thanks to our hard work and dedication upon our founding, we are now one of the fastest-developing water treatment equipment manufacturers in Western China.

Further reading

Pure Water Treatment System

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