Water softeners mainly solve the scale problem caused by hard water. Therefore, in the United States, where water quality is relatively hard, household water softeners have become quite popular. Household water softeners entered China, with harder water in North China and Northwest China as the main markets, which are in the embryonic stage.
Natural water can be divided into two types: hard water and soft water: water that contains a large amount of calcium and magnesium ions (inorganic minerals) is called hard water, otherwise it is called soft water. If the hardness of water is caused by sodium carbonate or magnesium bicarbonate This kind of water is called temporary hard water; if the hardness of water is caused by sulfate or chloride containing calcium and magnesium, this kind of water is called permanent hard water.
Simply put, water with a calcium carbonate content of less than 10 mg/L belongs to high-standard soft water. In western developed countries, soft water is used as 90% of household water (including cooking, washing, bathing, etc.). Non-polluting rain, snow, and dew are all natural soft water.
The so-called hard water is water containing minerals, mainly calcium salt, magnesium salt, etc. The more calcium and magnesium salts, the greater the hardness of the water. When washing your face with hard water, calcium salt and magnesium salt interact with soap to form water-insoluble calcium-magnesium soap, which is like a gelatinous and viscous substance that adheres to the face and is not easy to remove. In this way, the dirt on the original skin is not washed, and new dirt is added. The sticky substances formed by these dirt and calcium-magnesium soaps block the openings of the skin glands, which not only block the excretion channels of the skin, form embolism, stimulate the skin, but also affect the normal metabolism of the skin, causing the skin to shrink and age prematurely. Therefore, we should pay attention to choosing soft water with low hardness when washing our face. In nature, well water and spring water have the highest hardness, lake water and river water have medium hardness, rain water, snow water, and distilled water have the lowest hardness, so three types of water are better for washing your face after use.
The hardness of water is related to the taste. Hard water is refreshing. Most mineral waters have high hardness, which makes people feel refreshing and delicious. The soft water is light and tasteless. But using hard water to make tea or coffee, the taste will be affected. Some food processing water is more particular, the hardness of the water will affect the food processing, easy to cause protein precipitation, inorganic salt precipitation or more difficult to cook, and soft water is better for beverage water. Boiler water should generally soften the hard water, otherwise accidents will occur due to too much scale. The caustic soda on the kettle and shower, the hard-to-clean stains on the tiles and sanitary ware in the bathroom, and the spots on the glassware are all caused by hard water. Hard water makes household water pipes gradually clogged, wastes energy, and shortens the service life of water heaters. Laundry requires more washing supplies, damages cotton fabrics, and causes waste.
At present, the pollution of organic matter in water sources in our country is very serious. There are more and more types of organic matter. According to statistics, there are about 70,000 common ones. The presence of organic matter in water has a protective effect on the colloid and improves its stability. Not only does it increase the difficulty of water treatment, but also the toxic small-molecule organic matter is difficult to degrade, and accumulate in the organism, and has a strong three-causing effect (carcinogenic, Teratogenic, mutagenic) or chronic toxicity, the harm of organic matter to the human body is often lagging, and it takes a long time from discovery to illness, even 20-30 years. In addition, the combination of organic matter and chlorine disinfectant produces halogenated compounds, many of which have been identified as cancer triggers. Among them are mainly volatile trihalomethanes and non-volatile haloacetic acids. The latter is 50-100 times more carcinogenic than the former.