Membrane separation technology refers to a technology that achieves mechanical separation of mixed substances of different particle diameters when they pass through a semi-permeable membrane at the molecular level. A new separation technology that emerged in the early 20th century and rose rapidly after the 1960s. Membrane separation technology has the functions of separation, concentration, purification and refining. It also has the characteristics of high efficiency, energy saving, environmental protection, molecular filtration and simple filtration process, and easy control. It has been widely used in food, medicine, biology, environmental protection, and chemical engineering. , Metallurgy, energy, petroleum, water treatment, electronics, bionics and other fields have become one of the most important methods in separation science today.
In the cost structure of pharmaceutical products, separation, purification and concentration account for a relatively high proportion of the total cost. The application of modern separation, purification and concentration processes is an important way to improve the economic benefits of the pharmaceutical industry. At present, the pharmaceutical industry is increasingly using membrane separation technology to replace the traditional separation and concentration process, and has achieved good benefits. Membrane technology has become the core technology of the modernization of the pharmaceutical industry.
When applying membrane separation technology to treat biological fermentation broth, direct ultrafiltration of the fermentation broth to achieve solid-liquid separation has become more and more common. Ultrafiltration is used to remove macromolecular substances such as hyphae, proteins, viruses, and pyrogens. The molecular metabolites, including target products, salts and water, almost all pass through the ultrafiltration membrane.
In the production of fermented pharmaceuticals, because the concentration of the target product is low, the dehydration and concentration of the product is an important extraction process. At present, multi-effect evaporators are often used for concentration in production, which requires large investment and high energy consumption; at the same time, due to the phase change process of evaporation, product loss is caused, and the color of the product is deepened; for some products with high residual sugar content, caramelization is still May cause clogging and scaling. The use of one- or multi-stage nanofiltration and reverse osmosis technologies with no phase change and low energy consumption in the dehydration concentration process of fermentation production can greatly reduce the solvent and energy consumption in the subsequent process, and at the same time can improve the yield and product quality. Has significant economic benefits.
Characteristics of fermentation broth
The production of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids in the pharmaceutical industry mainly adopts the biological fermentation method with grain as the main raw material. The concentration of the target product in the fermentation broth is very low, generally only accounting for about 0.1%-5% of the volume of the fermentation broth, and contains a large amount of Other impurities, such as mycelium, protein, residual soluble substrates, intermediate metabolites, substances added during the pretreatment of fermentation broth, etc.; and some target products have poor heat resistance, pH resistance and organic solvent resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to remove a large amount of impurities from the fermentation broth to prepare a high-purity product that meets the requirements of the pharmacopoeia. Extraction and refining are very important links.
Choose an appropriate membrane separation process, which can replace some traditional separation and concentration methods such as vacuum hub filtration, plate and frame filtration, centrifugal separation, flocculation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and evaporation. Membrane separation technology has become one of the important means to realize the separation of fermented pharmaceutical industrial products.