The most commonly used filter materials in current water treatment equipment

The most commonly used filter materials in current water treatment equipment are: activated carbon, KDF, manganese greensand, resin, PP decontamination filter, origami filter, sodium polyphosophate, ceramic filter, reverse osmosis

Activated carbon has been found to be used for water treatment since the early twentieth century. It is a carbon with a porous structure. These pores are used to increase the surface area of ​​activated carbon to adsorb impurities. The physical properties of carbonized substances have a great relationship with the quality of its raw materials and processing. Common carbons currently use coal, trees, coconut shells or palm as the main raw materials. The carbon sintered from coconut shell has better stability, pore distribution and surface area are better than other types of carbon, these characteristics make it have better performance in water treatment.
Activated carbon absorbs and absorbs chemical substances, organic pollution sources, different colors and odors by the porous structure on the surface. Generally speaking, the smaller the volume of activated carbon, the larger its overall surface area will be, and the higher its gripping and adsorption capacity will be, but the pressure loss of its pipeline will also be higher, which is necessary when selecting activated carbon Note: Use the highest-grade coconut shell activated carbon, pickled and not pickled, particle size from 6 * 12 (for large systems) to 20 * 50 (for household filter cartridges), suitable for use in various occasions such as : Drinking water treatment, drinking water treatment, aquarium, home or factory use.


KDF is a mixture of copper and zinc chips. It works by exchanging electron oxidation to deal with pollution sources in water. Because copper and zinc are constantly exchanging electron redox.

The main object of KDF treatment is heavy metal impurities and organic pollution sources in water. If used together with reverse osmosis system, it can effectively extend the life of RO membrane. KDF is used at the front end of the activated carbon filter element. Before the chlorine in the water reaches the activated carbon, it is 95% removed by the KDF; the activated carbon can more effectively remove other impurities remaining in the water. Technically, it can effectively extend the life of activated carbon by 15 times.

Iron and manganese removal sand can be used to remove dissolved iron and manganese and hydrogen sulfide in water. It uses the principle of oxidation to precipitate particles of dissolved iron and manganese and then filters them out, and then discharges these particles by backwashing. Therefore, the system must be set to periodically backwash manganese sand must be periodically regenerated using potassium permanganate (KMno4), otherwise it will lose its oxidizing ability for a period of time.


Using resin to soften or remove calcium and magnesium ions in water is a common treatment method in water treatment. Resins can generally be divided into cationic resins and anionic resins. Hard water mainly contains hardness ions such as calcium and magnesium, which can cause scaling. The white scale layer common in bathrooms and toilets is the result of the action of hardness ions and soap. Heat will cause the formation of scaling to accelerate.
Therefore, the hot water supply pipes, stoves, factory boilers, cooling water towers, etc. at home will lose a lot of efficiency every year due to scaling problems. The use of water softeners is quite common in advanced countries in Europe and the United States. The installation of water softeners can be found in many homes. In Taiwan and mainland China, the installation and use of soft water is still a minority.

Sand is a traditional filter material. Mainly used in medium and large-scale systems to remove suspended impurities in water; sand filter is used as a coagulant to filter out many fine impurities in water. Because the unit weight of sand and stone is large, the filter must be backwashed frequently, and the backwash flow rate must be larger than the resin to effectively clean and maintain water permeability.

PP decontamination filter

PP filter elements are mostly used to catch suspended impurities, particles, sludge, etc. in water. Taking micron as the grading standard, the common manufacturing methods of different densities of the inner and outer layers of filter pores such as 1, 5, 10, and 20 microns give the filter element a greater gripping ability. When selecting PP decontamination filter, different filter pore size must be selected according to the occasion of use.

Origami filter

The use of origami lube core is similar to PP decontamination filter. It uses a folding design to increase its filtering surface area. The materials of the origami filter core are paper and plastic; the origami filter core has the characteristics of being repeatedly cleanable. Paper origami filter cartridges may be penetrated when used in raw water with high microbial biomass.

Sodium Polyphosophate

It is naturally transparent and glass-like in appearance. The main uses are: 1. To prevent scaling of pipes, especially hot water pipes. 2. Prevent corrosion of pipelines. It will combine with a small amount of hardness (calcium) in water to form a glass-like film attached to the wall of the pipe to prevent direct contact between water and metal. It is effective for most metals but not for copper and copper alloys. Sodium Hexmetaphosophate in the polyphosphate is a food additive approved by the US FDA and is guaranteed to be used in drinking water.

Ceramic filter

Ceramic filtration has been used in human history for many years. Especially in the United Kingdom, the use of ceramics as a filtering material has a hundred years of history. The advantage of ceramic filtering is that the filter pore size is small and it can be used as an absolute filter pore size. Another advantage is that it can be repeatedly washed: when the amount of effluent gradually decreases, you can use a tool to gently remove the dirt on the surface of the filter element to recover Water output. In recent years, some manufacturers have added silver to ceramic filter elements to utilize the principle of great silver activity to inhibit the regeneration of single-celled organisms.

Reverse osmosis is one of the most effective water treatment methods in existing technology. It can effectively treat water salts (such as calcium, magnesium and other hardness impurities), heavy metals, and chemical residues by more than 95%.
RO reverse osmosis water treatment technology is everywhere today, such as seawater desalination system, electronic ultrapure water refining system, biochemical pharmaceuticals, kidney dialysis, cosmetics manufacturing, beverages, packaged water and even general household filtration.

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